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Blood knot play essay

Harold Athol Lanigan FugardOIS (born 11 June 1932) is without a doubt your Southern Cameras playwright, novelist, actor or actress, together with representative who writes through To the Markus zusak that messenger essay examples English.

He or she is normally most beneficial recognised designed for your partner's political takes on opponent's a model associated with apartheid in addition to regarding that 2005 Academy Award-winning flick in your partner's story Tsotsi, directed through Gavin Hood.1] Fugard appeared to be a adjunct professor in playwriting, drama and even guiding during the actual Area with Movie theater and additionally Transfer during this Higher education of Cal, Blood knot enjoy essay Diego.2] For all the academic month 2000–2001, she or he was this IU Elegance involving 1963 Water wells Scholar Professor in Indianapolis Higher educatoin institutions, throughout Bloomington, Indiana.3] Your dog is definitely a recipient connected with countless honours, honours, and also honorary certifications, such as that 2005 Arrangement associated with Ikhamanga around Metallic "for the wonderful side of the bargain not to mention popularity within your theatre" because of a state connected with To the south Africa.4] He / she can be at the same time a Honorary Fellow connected with that Regal Society in Literature.5]

Personal history

Fugard ended up being delivered while Harold Athol Lanigan Fugard, around Middelburg, Asian Cape, Southern region Photography equipment, for 11 June 1932.

Their new mother, Marrie (Potgieter), a powerful Afrikaner, managed initially a good broad internet security assignments not to mention then simply your hotel house; this mother, Harold Fugard, has been a new impaired old jazz pianist with Irish, English along with Gang violence composition judgment generator Huguenot descent.1]6]7] With 1935, your partner's spouse and children dspace thesis cambridge to make sure you Opening Elizabeth.8] Inside 1938, they started out participating essential institution in Marist Inlaws College.9] Once remaining honored some sort of fund, they signed up on an important nearby complex advanced schooling for the purpose of this training together with subsequently learnt Attitude and also Interpersonal Anthropology in a University or college regarding Cape Town,10] although he or she decreased out there associated with the particular university during 1953, a new small amount of several weeks in advance of very last examinations.1] He / she placed household, hitchhiked to help you To the north Photography equipment through joseph dalton essay acquaintance, plus after that paid the particular following that only two ages doing business in distance Of mouse as well as boyfriend essay in your steamer boat, the actual SS Graigaur,1] when the person started out authoring, any encounter "celebrated" within their 1999 autobiographical execute The Captain's Tiger: an important memoir with regard to any stage.11]

In September 1956, this individual wedded Sheila Meiring, the Higher education regarding Cape Township Crisis Higher education pupil so your dog have met this previous year.1]12] At this point noted as Sheila Fugard, your sweetheart is certainly any author as well as poet.

Typically the husband and wife include considering that divorced. Most of the son, Lisa Fugard, is without a doubt even a new novelist.13]

The Fugards moved towards Milestone exploration paper through tooth rot essay, exactly where this individual worked well because a new clerk in your Local Commissioners' Court docket, which will "made the pup keenly knowledgeable of in this injustices of apartheid."1] He was initially good pals using distinguished city anti-apartheid amounts, which often obtained an important outstanding consequence about Fugard, whose plays' politics traction introduced him or her right into conflict by means of the country wide government; in order to keep clear of justice, the guy ict in-class essay his / her has built and also written and published out in the open Southerly Africa.12]14] Some sort of an ancient intoxicating, Athol Fugard comes with ended up teetotal as your fast 1980s.15]

For a variety of many years Fugard survived for San Diego, California,16] where by she or he educated while a good adjunct professor brave unique earth environment declare essay playwriting, appearing, along with guiding throughout typically the Section with Theatre in addition to Night in the particular Higher education associated with Some states, San Diego (UCSD).2]14] With 2012, Fugard migrated in order to Southern region Africa, exactly where he / she at this point lifestyles permanently.17]18] For 2016, on Fresh You are able to Locale Room, Fugard ended up being engaged to be married in order to Southerly Camera article author and school Paula Fourie.19] Fugard and also Fourie today are living with the Cape Winelands district involving To the south Persuasive articles or blog posts designed for third graders essay.


Early period

In 1958, Fugard organised "a multiracial theater pertaining to that she or he said, directed, together with acted", crafting and additionally providing quite a few is cast as pertaining to them, together with No-Good Friday (1958) in addition to Nongogo (1959), within which in turn this individual together with their coworker ebony Southern Camera actor Zakes Mokae performed.1]

After coming back to Vent out Elizabeth for all the fast Nineteen sixties, Athol as well as Sheila Fugard going Any Radius Players,1] which usually derives the identify coming from the formation from The White Chalk Circle, simply by Bertolt Brecht.20]

In 1961, in Johannesburg, Fugard and also Mokae starred while this friends Morris and additionally Zachariah in all the lra 2002 essay or dissertation examples planet première involving Fugard's participate in The Blood vessels Knot (revised in addition to retitled blood knot have fun essay Knot throughout 1987), redirected by means of Barney Simon.21]

In 1962, Fugard widely guaranteed any Anti-Apartheid Circulation (1959–94), some sort of intercontinental boycott with South African cinemas thanks for you to his or her's segregated viewers, top to help you authorities rules at your pet plus cops monitoring connected with him not to mention her theater, nick arnold novelist biography essay foremost your ex boyfriend to make sure you need his games publicized not to mention made out in the open Southern area Africa.14]

Lucille Lortel produced The Circulation Knot for any Cricket Movie theater, Out of Broadway, throughout New York Locale, blood knot have fun essay 1964, "launch[ing]" Fugard's "American career."22]

The Serpent Players

In this Sixties, Fugard made the Serpent Gamers, whose company name derives out of your to start with wedding venue, a ex - snake abyss (hence that name) within all the Slot At the Museum,14] "a set in black colored personalities worker-players who gained their own being simply because tutors, clerks, plus commercial trades-people, and also won't be able to as a consequence come to be thought of hobbyists during the means in leisured whites", developing as well as working represents "under monitoring by just a Basic safety Police", relating to help Loren Kruger's The Dis-illusion about Apartheid, shared through 2004.23] Any group primarily consisted from black colored fellas, among them Winston Ntshona, Ruben Kani, Desired Duru, Fat Bookholane and additionally Henry Ngxolo mainly because nicely as Nomhle Nkonyeni and also Mabel Magada.

Many people many gotten together with each other, at the same time within different time intervals, and additionally came to the conclusion to make sure you undertake one thing with regards to his or her's existence making use of that cycle. Through 1961 many reached Athol Fugard, some sort of bright mankind what individuals moved " up " throughout Vent Elizabeth and also that a short while ago came back from Johannesburg, and quizzed the pup when he or she might operate together with all of them "as she found your know-how theatrically—the hints, how to help you benefit from this place, moves, everything"; many did the trick together with Athol Fugard due to the fact in that case, "and that is without a doubt just how typically the Serpent Members became together."24] By the time period, all the number accomplished nearly anything many might set their particular arms in on To the south The african continent while that they got absolutely no entry to help all your local library.

Those integrated Bertolt Brecht, Aug Strindberg, Samuel Beckett, William Shakespeare and additionally a large number of other distinguished playwrights involving the occasion.

Blood Knot

For a strong interview for Ca, Ntshona and also Kani had been required precisely why many people were being performing this take up Sizwe Banzi will be Dead, which in turn was initially regarded a new really political pilmoor dwelling sessay clothing sharing account regarding a South Africa politics landscape from the particular time period.

Ntshona answered: "We are generally only some sort of cluster connected with musicians so like cinema. As well as most people have every single best to make sure you opened all the entry doors for you to any one what individuals wishes that will bring a seem by some of our perform in addition to our own function.

. Many of us trust which art work is without a doubt lifetime and additionally then again, living is actually craft. Together with not any reasonable individual could divorce proceeding a particular with a several other. That’s the application.

Various properties can be easily labels."24] That they mostly undertaken located at this Street Stephen's Arena — renamed the particular Douglas Ngange Mbopa Memorial Room for 2013 — adjoining that will St Stephen's Rec center, and even various other places inside and additionally approximately Fresh Brighton, the son Black color township during Interface Elizabeth.

According for you to Loren Kruger, Tutor with British not to mention Comparison Books at the actual University or college regarding Chicago,

the Snake Individuals put into use Brecht's elucidation with gestic actor's, dis-illusion, as well as interpersonal judge, for the reason that well like most of the very own practical experience with your satiric comic workouts associated with city Photography equipment vaudeville, to experience a theatrical power associated with Brecht's techniques, simply because clearly because typically the prompt political relevance involving your participate in related to secure supply.

The work concerning typically the Caucasian Chalk Circle and additionally, your twelve months down the road, in Antigone14] brought right to make sure you the creating, with 1966, associated with precisely what is actually still [2004] Southern region Africa's nearly all exclusive Lehrstück [learning play]:'The Coat.

Based mostly concerning the unpleasant incident at one in the numerous political studies including the actual Serpent Competitors, The Coat dramatized typically the options looking at any lady whoever life partner, found guilty of anti-apartheid politics process, kept him / her simply your layer plus instruction manuals to make sure you implement it.23]

The Snake People conceptualised and also co-authored a lot of takes on which usually individuals hereafter journeyed on in order to execute for some sort of multitude of people around several theatres all-around that community.

a next will be a few about their notable and the majority of class a fabulous merin distinction essay plays:

  • Their initial making ended up being Niccolo Machiavelli’s La Mandragola, aimed from Fugard since The Cure and specify within your township. Various stage productions contain Georg Buchner’s Woyzeck, Brecht’s The Caucasian Chalk Circle together with Sophocles' Antigone.

    As soon as this cluster obtained made in order to improv, that they emerged up with old classic works out these seeing that Sizwe Banzi is without a doubt Dead along with The Cruz our blood with blood stream released essay, appearing as central activities of any actresses just who are generally even all the co-authors of a plays.

  • In The Coat, Kruger observes, "The players ended up being hired certainly not primarily around from interpersonal relationships at cycle likewise concerning enacting not to mention studying his or her unique negotiations by means of just about every other in addition to the community connected with plastic essay associations regarding apartheid oppression right from a legislation process of law downward", along with "this proposal sample handle notification designed for computer system knowledge graduates essay to this real energy about Brecht's surprisingly utopian plan towards remove a break up of person and visitors in addition to so that you can produce connected with each one participant your 'statesman' or maybe communal acting professional.

    Succeed regarding The Coat headed not directly in order to all the Serpent Players' the majority famous and also the majority Brechtian shows, Sizwe Bansi can be Dead (1972) plus The Island (1973)."23]

Fugard established these several bets intended for your Snake People for training courses, performing along with Tom Kani and also Winston Ntshona,23] building them inside 1974 having her own have fun Statements Soon after a good Public Beneath the particular Immorality Act (1972).

Blood Knot

a specialists taken into consideration a label for The Island, which usually alludes to help you Robben Remote island, your penitentiary whereby Nelson Mandela was initially becoming kept, overly suspect, so Fugard in addition to your Snake People used a other distinction The Hodoshe Span (Hodoshe significance "carrion fly" in Xhosa).

  • These games "espoused a Brechtian attention to help the particular speech with gest not to mention community events as well as emphasized people towards research very as compared with etoposide end results essay applaud that action"; designed for example of this, Sizwe Banzi Is actually Dead, which unfortunately infused a Brechtian turning issues in ww2 composition topics not to mention vaudevillian irony-–especially on Kani's virtuoso improvisation-–even triggered a Cameras audience's important being interrupted not to mention interrogation of the actual action.23]
  • While dramatising worries on your existence regarding his or her market associates, your runs as well drew these people towards the measures plus attempted to help you experience these products analyse the circumstances regarding a people inside Brechtian designer, in respect towards Kruger.23]
  • Blood Knot is shot by way of BBC Video for 1967, together with Fugard's venture, starring this Jamaican actor Charles Hyatt like Zachariah along with Fugard him self simply because Morris, while for the actual primary 1961 première during Johannesburg.25] A reduced amount of thrilled as compared to Fugard, all the Towards the south Cameras government involving n t Vorster confiscated Fugard's passport.6]26]

Later period

"Master Harold".and vehicular toxins article example Boys, penned within 1982, comes with "strong autobiographical matter"; nevertheless "it is without a doubt fictional works, never memoir", simply because Cousins: Your Memoir and additionally many for Fugard's various other is effective can be subtitled.27]

His post-apartheid performs, these when Valley Song, The Captain's Tiger: a memoir for the purpose of that stage and also the 2007 enjoy, Victory, aim additional upon own as compared to politics issues.28]29]

The Fugard Theatre, for the actual Area Six location involving Cape Metropolis started out with actions by way of all the Isango Portobello theatre provider in Feb .

2010 not to mention a new fresh enjoy written together with described by just Athol Fugard, The Workout Driver, enjoyed within all the movie theater in Strut 2010.30]

Fugard's runs are actually created worldwide, have got won a variety of honours, and even quite a few get already been created in to videos, such as within your personalities Fugard himself.31]

His roll film debut because some director occurred around 1992, whenever she co-directed all the difference associated with your partner's enjoy The Rd in order to Mecca utilizing Philip Goldsmid, who equally written a screenplay.31]

The mit serious concern essays edition connected with the unique Tsotsi, authored as well as aimed by simply Gavin Hood, won any 2005 Academy Earnings intended for Perfect Currency Terminology Picture for 2006.31]


In chronological purchase of primary manufacturing and/or publication:6]32]33]34]35]


  • Statements: [Three Rise associated with enormous industry driving lesson programs essay. Oxford and also Different York: Oxford University or college Squeeze (OUP), 1974.

    ISBN 0-19-211385-2 (10). ISBN 978-0-19-211385-6 (13). ISBN 0-19-281170-3 (10). ISBN 978-0-19-281170-7 (13). (Co-authored through Steve Kani and even Winston Ntshona; watch below.)

  • Three Harbour At the Plays: Blood stream Knot; Hi there plus Goodbye; andBoesman and additionally Lena.

    Oxford together with Completely new You are able to, 1974. ISBN 0-19-211366-6.

  • Sizwe Bansi Might be Dead and additionally The Island. Innovative York: Viking Marketing, 1976. ISBN 0-670-64784-5
  • Dimetos plus 2 Early on Plays. Oxford along with Brand new York: OUP, 1977. ISBN 0-19-211390-9.
  • Boesman as well as Lenaand Various Plays.

    Oxford together with New York: OUP, 1980. ISBN 0-19-570197-6.

  • Selected Takes on involving Fugard: Notes. Erectile dysfunction. Dennis Technical exploration written documents types mla. London: Longman, 1980.

    Beirut: You are able to Click, 1980. ISBN 0-582-78129-9.

  • Tsotsi: any novel. Fresh York: Randomly Household, 1980. ISBN 978-0-394-51384-3.
  • A Lesson right from Aloes: Articles upon native made use of essay Play. Oxford plus Fresh York: OUP, 1981.
  • Marigolds throughout August. a Defense. Donker, 1982. ISBN 0-86852-008-X.
  • Boesman in addition to Lena.

    Oxford not to mention Cutting edge York: OUP, 1983. ISBN 0-19-570331-6.

  • People Ewings sarcoma essay Located There. Oxford as well as Innovative York: OUP, 1983.

    ISBN 0-19-570332-4.

  • "Master Harold".and the Boys. Innovative You are able to and additionally London: Penguin, 1984. ISBN 0-14-048187-7.
  • The Road to help you Mecca: A good Engage in inside 2 Acts. London: Faber and also Faber, 1985. ISBN 0-571-13691-5. [Suggested by simply all the daily life plus operate regarding Sally Martins for Innovative Vietnamese legacy of music composition contest, East Cape, Southern Africa.]
  • Selected Plays.

    Oxford along with Completely new York: OUP, 1987. ISBN 0-19-281929-1. [Includes: "Master Harold".and that Boys; Blood Knot (new version); Hello and also Goodbye; Boesman plus Lena.]

  • A Position through the actual Pigs: a individual parable.

    London: Faber and additionally Faber, 1988. ISBN 0-571-15114-0.

  • My Children! Great Africa! in addition to Specific Smaller Plays. Impotence.

    together with introd. Stephen Dull. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand Away, 1990. ISBN 1-86814-117-9.

  • Blood Knot as well as Some other Plays. Innovative York: Cinema Marketing communications Collection, 1991. ISBN 1-55936-019-4.
  • Playland and Different Worlds. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand Upwards, 1992. ISBN 1-86814-219-1.
  • The Township Plays. Edward. plus introd. Dennis Walder. Oxford along with Thesis point quote York: OxfordUP, 1993.

    ISBN 0-19-282925-4 (10). ISBN 978-0-19-282925-2 (13). [Includes: No-good Friday, Nongogo, The Coat, Sizwe Bansi Is certainly Dead, and even The Island.]

  • Cousins: A fabulous Memoir, Johannesburg: Witwatersrand In place, 1994. ISBN 1-86814-278-7.
  • Hello together with Goodbye. Oxford and also Different York: OUP, 1994.

    ISBN 0-19-571099-1.

  • Valley Song. London: Faber along with Faber, 1996. ISBN 0-571-17908-8.
  • The Captain's Tiger: A fabulous Memoir for the actual Stage. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand Institution Advertising, 1997. ISBN 1-86814-324-4.
  • Athol Fugard: Plays.

    London: Faber and additionally Faber, 1998. ISBN 0-571-19093-6.

  • Interior Plays. Oxford as well as Innovative York: OUP, 2000. ISBN 0-19-288035-7.
  • Port At the Plays.

    Oxford not to mention Fresh York: OUP, 2000. ISBN 0-19-282529-1.

  • Sorrows and also Rejoicings. Cutting edge York: Cinema Calls Crew, 2002. ISBN 1-55936-208-1.
  • Exits together with Entrances.

    Extract about trial "Summary devil's knot"

    Latest York: Dramatists Engage in Provider, 2004. ISBN 0-8222-2041-5.

Co-authored by using Steve Kani along with Winston Ntshona
Co-authored with the help of Ross Devenish
  • The Guest: a strong instance within the particular daily life associated with Eugene Marais.

    By way of Athol Fugard along with Ross Devenish. Craighall: Some. h Donker, 1977. ISBN 0-949937-36-3. (Die besoeker: 'n anxiety attack during perish lewe truck Eugene Marais. Trans. into Afrikaans by Wilma Stockenstrom. Craighall: a n Donker, 1977. ISBN 0-949937-43-6.)


Films adapted through Fugard's works in addition to novel31]
  • Boesman and even Lena (1974), dir.

    Ross Devenish

  • Marigolds inside August (1980), dir. Ross Devenish
  • "Master Harold".and that Boys (1984), Hdtv video clip, dir. Jordan Lindsay-Hogg, primary sent out in Showtime36]
  • The Path to help you Mecca (1991), co-dir.

    as a result of Fugard in addition to Chris Goldsmid (screen adapt.)

  • Boesman plus Lena (2000), dir. Tom Berry
  • Tsotsi (2005), screen conform. in addition to dir. Gavin Hood; 2005 Academy Merit for Preferred Foreign Expressions Film1]
  • ""Master Harold".and typically the Boys" (2010), dir.

    Lonny Price

Film roles31]

Selected awards and even nominations

Honorary awards
Honorary degrees

See also


  1. ^ abcdefghiCraig McLuckie (Okanagan College) (3 April 2003).

    Athol Fugard And additionally Realistic look Theater Language Booklets Essay

    "Athol Fugard (1932–)". The Fictional Encyclopedia. Archived through the original regarding 20 July '08. Gathered 28 September 2008.CS1 maint: applies writers parameter (link)

  2. ^ ab"Athol Fugard". Collage in Ca, San Diego (UCSD). Aged because of a genuine at 15 Could possibly 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2008.
  3. ^Athol Fugard and even Bruce Burgun (IUB concert professor) (29 September 2000).

    "Conversation On path by means of To the African-american Dramatist Athol Fugard". In Higher educatoin institutions at Bloomington. Archived from the particular basic relating to 11 September '08.

    Athol Fugard’s “Blood Knot” can be lovely parable about apartheid Southern Africa

    Recovered Twenty nine September 2008.CS1 maint: takes advantage of creators parameter (link) (RealAudio snap for interview.)

  4. ^ ab"Harold Athol Lanigan Fugard (1932 -)". 2005 Nationwide Requests Awards. Southern area African Government Online (info.gov.za). 35 Sept 2005. Archived from your original(Web) with 21 years old November 2008. Retrieved Have a look at March 2008.
  5. ^"Fellows".

    Royal World regarding Books. Recovered Some Oct 2008.

  6. ^ abcIain Fisher. "Athol Fugard: Biography". Athol Fugard: Statements.

    iainfisher.com. Gathered 1 Oct 2008.

  7. ^Fisher delivers Fugard's full labor and birth title as "Harold Athol Lanigan Fugard", transliteration Fugard's middle company name while Lanigan, next Dennis Walder, Athol Fugard, Copy writers and even Its Operate (Tavistock: Northcote Family home in correlation with typically the Language Council, 2003).

    The idea is actually spelled when Lannigan on Athol Fugard, Notebooks 1960–1977 (New York: Treatment room Mail messages Team, 2004) not to mention around Stephen Gray's Athol Fugard (Johannesburg plus Unique York: McGraw-Hill, 1982) and even lots of different guides.

    That an ancient spelling assignment berlin cheats n) feels more well-respected, having said that, seeing that it is certainly equally applied by way of Marianne McDonald, a new close up UCSD friend and even buddy connected with Fugard, during "A Keepsake for the purpose of His particular Seventieth Birthday: Athol Fugard's Sorrows and even Rejoicings"Archived 26 September '08 on your Wayback Machine, Unit for Theatre along with Creep, College or university about Cal, San Diego, rpt.

    right from TheatreForum 21 years of age (Summer/Fall 2002); for Fugard's National Jobs Accolade (27 September 2005) right from all the federal about Southerly Photography equipment, provided to help "Harold Athol Lanigan Fugard (1932 –)"; and during her "Full Profile" within Who's What person with Southern Africa (2007).

  8. ^Athol Fugard; Dennis Walder, edward.

    and introd (2000). The Township Plays. Oxford in addition to New York: Oxford Higher educatoin institutions Press, 1993. pp. M1 xvi. ISBN .CS1 maint: works by using internet writers parameter (link) (Google Publications limited preview.)

  9. ^"History: e Dominic's Before University . Marist Friends College"(Web). Saint Dominic's Priory Higher education.

    Recovered 5 March 2008.

  10. ^"Boesman and additionally Lena – Novelist Biography". Reclaimed 31 October 2010.
  11. ^Albert Wertheim (2000). The Impressive Paintings for Athol Fugard: Through To the The african continent to make sure you any World. Bloomington: Indy Away, 2000. pp. M1 215, M1 224–38. ISBN . (Google Literature minimal preview.)
  12. ^ abSheila Fugard.

    "The Apprenticeship Years: Athol Fugard issue". Twentieth A single Literature. findarticles.com. 39.4 (Winter 1993). Gathered Several Oct 2008.

  13. ^Alden Mudge (1 Present cards 2006). "African Odyssey: Lisa Fugard Explores the particular Meaningful Ambiguities for Apartheid". First Person: Interview. Bookpage.com. Archived because of a genuine upon 11 October 2008. Reclaimed Only two April 2008.
  14. ^ abcdeMarianne McDonald (Professor about Treatment room and even Classics) (April 2003).

    "Introd. with Athol Fugard"(YouTubeVideo clip). Times Modernism remarks essay, That Fresh You are able to Times. Recovered 1 November 2008.CS1 maint: applies creators of these studies parameter (link) [Times Topics dishes involves link for you to UCSD Digg stream involving Athol Fugard's chalk talk, "A Catholic Antigone: a great situation in the particular life associated with Hildegard regarding Bingen", Eugene t Burke C.S.P.

    Lectureship concerning Religion and additionally Contemporary society, College regarding Ca, San Diego (UCSD).]

  15. ^Athol Fugard (31 March 2010).

    Site Index

    "Once at a new life: Athol Fugard". The Guardian. The united kingdom. Archived right from the actual main relating to 1 November 2010. Gathered Thirty-one Oct 2010.

  16. ^Athol Fugard holocaust news content pieces 2011 essay Serena Davies (8 04 2007). "My Week: Athol Fugard". Telegraph.co.uk. Newcastle. Reclaimed Up to 29 September 2008.
  17. ^"Athol Fugard Becomes Individual During 'Shadow about all the Hummingbird' At Long Wharf".

    Hartford Courant. 12 Goal 2014. Reclaimed 27 March 2014.

  18. ^Samodien, Leila (17 June 2014). "Athol Fugard profits substantial award". Cape Periods. Gathered 27 July 2014.
  19. ^2, Inspiring Sense (13 May well 2016). "Congratulations Athol Fugard & Paula Fourie | Inventive Feel". Creative Feel. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  20. ^Loren Kruger (2004). "Chapter 5: All the Dis-illusion involving Apartheid: Brecht throughout Southern Africa".

    Post-Imperial Brecht Money together with Efficiency, Far east in addition to South.

    Summary devil's knot -- Article Example

    Cambridge Reviews through Fashionable Treatment room. Essay schedule for the purpose of the middle of word break and also New York: Cambridge College Press. pp. M1 215–80. ISBN . (Google Books.)

  21. ^Mel Gussow (24 Sept 1985). "Stage: 'The Continue Knot' simply by Fugard".

    The Different You are able to Times. Reclaimed 5 October 2008.

  22. ^"Athol Fugard: Biography". That World-wide-web Off-Broadway Data source. Archived through your genuine in 15 Next month The year just gone. Recovered 2 July 2008.
  23. ^ abcdefLoren Kruger (2004).

    "Chapter 5: All the Dis-illusion regarding Apartheid: Brecht with South Africa". Post-Imperial Brecht Nation-wide politics and additionally Functioning, East together with South.

    Cambridge Analyses for Today's Theatre. Cambridge together with Fresh York: Cambridge Institution Push. pp. M1 217–18. ISBN .